difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet | Linquip (2023)

The difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet is in their forces and fields. The magnetic field of a permanent magnet is always constant, but the electromagnetic magnetic field is created by the buildup of an electric current and ends when the current is removed.

The difference in strength between the two is due to the nature ofmagnetization🇧🇷 That is, when the magnetic property of the permanent magnet is greater, the magnet is stronger. But with the electromagnet, the strength depends on the electric current.

Learn more about electrical appliances and equipment at Linquip

Click here

This article introduces both types of magnets and discusses the difference between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet.


Any object that creates a magnetic field is called a magnet. The magnetic field is invisible, but it has an absorbing effect on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, etc. It also has an absorbing or repelling effect on other magnets.


Magnets generally refer to objects that produce a stable magnetic field even when no magnetic field is applied to them. This is a characteristic of a certain category of materials. Obviously, most materials produce a magnetic field when a magnetic field is applied to them. This phenomenon is called magnetism, which has different types. Every substance exhibits at least one type of magnetism.

The magnetic behavior of a substance depends on its general structure and, in particular, on the arrangement of its electrons. The most well-known types of magnetic behavior of different materials are the following:

Ferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic

Ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials are those that are attracted to a magnet and can naturally become a magnet while maintaining its magnetization. Ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are similar, but ferromagnetic materials are stronger than each other. The difference is in their internal structure.

Learn more about measurement, test, and control devices and equipment at Linquip

(Video) What is the difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet?


Paramagnetic materials are substances that are very poorly absorbed by magnets, such as oxygen, platinum and aluminum. These materials cannot be magnetized. The absorption of these materials in magnets is a thousand times weaker than that of ferromagnetic materials.


Diamagnetic means repulsion by a magnet. These materials do not have magnetic properties. Examples of these materials are plastics, water, carbon and copper. Most materials fall into this category. Superconducting materials also fall into this category because they completely repel the magnetic field.

The figure below shows the magnetic behavior of various materials with and without the presence of a magnetic field.

difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet | Linquip (2)


Any object made of a magnetized material that can create a permanent magnetic field is a permanent magnet. Materials that are well attracted to the magnet are ferromagnetic materials as well as ferrimagnetic materials. Nickel, iron, cobalt and theirdiseasesbelong to these materials.

The use of permanent magnets is quite widespread in our daily life. Like a fridge magnet. Of course, many of the everyday uses of permanent magnets are invisible, but without them, many of our daily routines are impossible. Like the role of magnets in operating cars, imaging systems, generators, televisions, personal computers, telephones, and so on.

Strongly magnetized hard materials become permanent magnets. An example that fully describes the behavior of a permanent magnet is the bar magnet. Permanent magnets are also often called bar magnets.

Magnets are natural or artificial. Natural magnets, like magnets, inherently have a weak magnetic field. But artificial magnets are handmade, have a stronger field, and are made anyway suitable for human use.

The magnet has two poles: north pole and south pole. When we hang a magnet, the north pole is the pole that faces the Earth's magnetic north pole, and vice versa to determine the south pole of the magnet. If you break a bar magnet in half, it still has two poles, north and south. No matter how many times you continue this break, the two poles, north and south remain for her.

The strongest magnetic property is a magnet at its poles. If you place two bar magnets next to each other, like poles will repel and like poles will attract. A bar magnet will also pick up all ferromagnetic materials.

difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet | Linquip (3)

How is a permanent magnet made?

Permanent magnetism arises from the internal structure of a substance. Inside the atoms are the electrons and nuclei of the atoms, which are naturally magnetic and spin around like bits of electrical charge. Also by the rotation of the electron around the nucleus in theElectronic circuits, a magnetic field is created.

So, microscopically, the magnetic field of permanent magnets is the result of three factors: electron spins, nuclear spins and electron orbits.

Many materials do not have permanent magnetic properties because the magnetic fields of each of these factors point randomly in all directions and cancel each other out. But in ferromagnetic materials, the fields caused by the rotation of the nucleus and the electron and the circle of electrons add up, reinforcing each other and creating a permanent magnetic field.

The strength of a permanent magnet depends entirely on the internal structure of the material. The strongest permanent magnetic field has a strength of 8,000Gauss🇧🇷 Of course, up to 450,000 gauss have been obtained in the laboratory.

(Video) The interaction between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet

magnetic field lines

If we place the magnet on a piece of paper and sprinkle the iron filings around it, the position that the iron filings form around the magnet of the magnet represents the magnetic field lines. In fact, magnetic field lines are a series of hypothetical lines that represent the strength and orientation of the surrounding field and show the surrounding magnetic material.

Magnetic field lines have the following properties:

  • These lines are closed and continuous.
  • The tangent at each point represents the direction of the magnetic field at that point.
  • Dense lines represent a stronger field.
  • The magnetic field lines do not intersect.
difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet | Linquip (4)

types of permanent magnets

Types of permanent magnets include:

ceramic magnet

Ceramic magnets are the cheapest permanent magnets used in cases like food processing.

flexible magnet

These magnets can be made from a combination of polymers, plastics and magnetic powders. An example is the use of flexible magnets in refrigerator doors.

Neodymium Iron Boron Magnet

These types of magnets (NdFeB) are used to make jewelry. They are rare, expensive, and something of a magnet for the earth.

Imam of Samaria Cobalt

This is also a type of earth magnet. Therefore, it is rare and expensive, but resistant to oxidation, unlike NdFeB magnet. The use of this magnet (SmCo) is in turbomachines.

Properties of permanent magnets

  • A permanent magnet generates a strong magnetic field even with a low mass.
  • A good permanent magnet is resistant to demagnetization.
  • A permanent magnet is used at a certain temperature. Therefore, they do not work properly on devices that operate at high temperatures.
  • The corrosion resistance of a permanent magnet over time is low; therefore, its strength gradually decreases.
  • The poles of a permanent magnet cannot be changed.


An electromagnetic field is created by an electric current in a wire wound in a coil around a core of a ferromagnetic material, such as iron. A magnetic field is generated towards the center of the coil and the metal core increases its strength. When the electric current is removed, the magnetic field also disappears.

In the figure below you can see the direction of a magnetic field (B) generated by an electric current (I).

difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet | Linquip (5)

The formula for calculating the magnetic field generated by a current is as follows:


{\mu_{0}}=4{\pi}\times 10^{-7}\frac{Tm}{A}

Tesla (T) is the unit of magnetic flux density (B) per unit cross-sectional area. Also, r is the radial distance from the supply wire.

The application of electromagnets in the electrical industry and mechanical engineering is very wide. For example, they are used in engines, generators, hard drives, loudspeakers, cranes for lifting heavy objects, and medical equipment like MRIs.

Electromagnets are used in transformers where the coils create alternating magnetic fields and supply the electrical current to induce the voltage. The most commonly used transformers in the electrical grid are used to control AC voltages.

According to Ampere's law, electric current in a wire creates a magnetic field around the wire. If several wires are wound next to each other, a strong central field will be created in the middle. A coil forming a straight tube is called a solenoid.

Ampère's Law states that the integral of the magnetic field strength (H) within a closed circuit is equal to the sum of the sum of the currents flowing through the circuit. In mathematical language it means:

\oint H.dL=\int J.dA


The right of the above equation can be written as the algebraic sum of the currents flowing through the loop.

\oint H.dL=I_{enc}

If we want to calculate the magnetic field in a ring of radius r, the above relationship can be written as:




The direction of the magnetic field can be determined using the right-hand rule. In this way, when the fingers of the right hand are bent in the direction of the current in the coils, the thumb of the right hand is in the direction of the magnetic field. The direction from which the field lines run represents the North Pole.

The relationship between B and H is like the following relationship.


Here M and μ are magnetization and magnetic permeability, respectively.

It is necessary to mention Maxwell's equation, which explains the relationship between an electric field and a magnetic field.

{\nabla}\times \overrightarrow{E}=-\frac{{\partial}\overrightarrow{B}}{{\partial}t}

The magnetic flux density and electric field strength exert a force on a charge q moving with velocity v, which is explained by the Lorentz force equation.

\overrightarrow{F}=q(\overrightarrow{E}+\overrightarrow{v}\vezes \overrightarrow{B})

appliesStokes' theoremto Maxwell's equation leads to the following equation.

\oint E.dL=-\frac{{\partial}}{{\partial}t}\int \overrightarrow{B}.d\overrightarrow{A}

The integration of the electric field around a closed circuit leads to the definition of the electromotive force ζ. Also, Φ denotes the magnetic flux, the surface integral of the magnetic flux density surrounded by the loop.


(Video) Electromagnet vs permanent magnet

This is known as Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, which states that when a conductor is in a changing magnetic field, there is an induction of an electromotive force.

magnetic core

If a core of ferromagnetic material is used in the center of the coil, the magnetic field can be amplified up to a thousand times due to the high permeability coefficient of the material. These types of electromagnets are called ferromagnetic cores or iron cores.

Of course, not all electromagnets are ferromagnetic core types, especially very powerful electromagnets like superconductors or those with very high currents in their coils cannot have a core.

The material used in the electromagnetic core has small areas called magnetic domains. Usually they are oriented in such a way that they cancel each other's magnetic effect and the object is not considered a magnet. But once a current is generated in the coil around the object, the resulting magnetic field aligns and parallelizes small magnetic areas.

The effect of the coil current field and the magnetic field increases in the same direction. This creates a very strong magnetic field.

The greater the current in the coil, the stronger the magnetic field generated. However, this method does not exist indefinitely, and since all the magnetic fields are aligned, increasing the current in the circuit causes very little increase in the field. This state is called saturation.

When the electric current is removed, the magnetic domains within the core lose their alignment and return to their previous random arrangement. But some alignments remain and the core remains a weak magnet. This condition is called hysteresis. The residual magnetic field is also called residual magnetism.

The figure below shows the magnetic field lines around an iron-core electromagnet.

difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet | Linquip (6)

Properties of electromagnets

  • The electromagnetic magnetic field has imaginary field lines like a permanent magnet.
  • Like a permanent magnet, electromagnets have north and south poles.
  • Electromagnets cost less than permanent magnets.
  • The electromagnet power can be adjusted according to your needs.
  • Electromagnets require a lot of maintenance.
  • They are not suitable for small spaces as they require a lot of copper couplers.
  • There are some side effects that must be considered when designing electromagnets, such as: B. ohmic heat, inductive voltage spikes, Lorentz forces, and core losses.

I amThis video, you can learn more about electromagnetism or electromagnetic force.

Difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet

After a thorough introduction and discussion of the characteristics of each, we will describe the difference between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. These differences are mentioned in the following cases.

Read more about Linquip

Difference between FDM and TDM: basic points

The difference in the types of magnetization

The main difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet is the way they are magnetized. The permanent magnet is permanently magnetized, but the electromagnet is temporarily magnetized.

The difference in materials

Another difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet is in their materials. Permanent magnets are usually made of hard materials, but the material used in the electromagnet is soft.

The difference in the positioning of the poles

The position of the poles is a difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet. With a permanent magnet, the poles are fixed and do not change. But with the electromagnet, the poles can change.

The difference in strengths

There is a difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet in strengths. The strength of the magnetic field in a permanent magnet is constant, but the strength of the electromagnetic magnetic field is proportional to the needs of the user.

(Video) Differences Between Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets


What is difference between permanent magnet and electromagnet give one example of each? ›

The poles of a Permanent magnet cannot be changed. The poles of an electromagnet can be altered. Example of a temporary magnet is solenoid wounded across a nail and connected to a battery.

What is difference between permanent magnet and temporary magnet? ›

A permanent magnet is one that retains its magnetic properties for a long period of time. Examples are iron, nickel, cobalt and some rare earth alloys etc. Temporary magnets are those that simply act like permanent magnets when they are within a strong magnetic field.

What are three differences between permanent magnet and electromagnet? ›

The magnetic field of permanent magnets cannot be changed, as it remains constant. Electromagnets are temporary, as these magnets work on magnetic forces only when an electric current passes through them. Permanent magnets generate a weaker magnetic force as compared to electromagnets.

What is the difference between the magnet and the electromagnets? ›

As the name suggests, a permanent magnet is 'permanent'. This means that it always has a magnetic field and will display a magnetic behavior at all times. An electromagnet is made from a coil of wire which acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it.

Which is stronger electromagnet and permanent magnet? ›

An electromagnet is better than permanent magnet because it can produce very strong magnetic field and its strength can be controlled by varying the number of turns in its coil or by changing the current flowing through the coil.

What is called permanent magnet? ›

Permanent magnets are those magnets that are commonly used. They are known as permanent magnets because they do not lose their magnetic property once they are magnetised.

What are the difference between permanent and temporary magnet class 6? ›

Permanent magnets attain their magnetic properties forever. Temporary magnets attain their magnetic properties only when they are in a strong magnetic field. Once the magnetic field is removed, they lose their magnetic properties. Permanent magnets are usually found in nature.

Why is it called a permanent magnet? ›

A permanent magnet is called a permanent magnet because its magnetism is 'always on', it generates its own persistent magnetic field unlike an electromagnet which is made from a coil of wire wrapped around a ferrous core and requires an electric current to generate a magnetic field.

What is the main difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet that makes it good for its job in a scrapyard? ›

an electromagnet can be switched on and off • so it can be used to lift a car body • and release a car body • so it can easily be used to move car bodies from one place to another in the scrapyard • a permanent magnet cannot be switched off to release a car body • so would not be as useful in the scrapyard • the ...

What are permanent magnets and electromagnets Give two uses? ›

Permanent magnets are used in electric generators, speakers, refrigerator door etc. <br> Materials behaving as magnetn only when a current is passed through a coil would around the material are called electromagnet . Electromagnets are used in electric bell , transformer , electric carnes etc.

Why use electromagnets instead of permanent magnets? ›

Electromagnets have the main benefit of manipulating their magnetic pull strength – both by turning the magnet on or off and by adjusting the current. They also feature greater pull strength than permanent magnets.

Do permanent magnets have current? ›

There is no current present if a coiled magnet simply remains static. But if you spin it with enough force you then would be inducing a current.

Which magnet is the strongest and why? ›

The strongest permanent magnets are neodymium (Nd) magnets. They are made from an alloy of neodymium, boron and iron to form Nd2Fe14B structure. Neodymium is a rare earth element.

What is the strongest magnet called? ›

What is the strongest type of magnet? Neodymium magnets are the strongest magnets in the world.

Which magnet has highest strength? ›

Developed independently in 1984 by General Motors and Sumitomo Special Metals, neodymium magnets are the strongest type of permanent magnet available commercially.

What are the 4 kinds of permanent magnets? ›

Permanent magnets are manufactured with four main types of materials: ceramic, alnico, samarium cobalt, and neodymium iron boron.

What is the use of permanent magnet? ›

Permanent magnets are used in audio equipment like headphones, loudspeakers, etc. Permanent magnets are used in MRI Scanners. Permanent magnets are used in Hard Disc Drives in computers. Permanent magnet is found in closing the door of a refrigerator.

What is permanent magnet give example? ›

A permanent magnet is an object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. An everyday example is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door.

What are the 2 types of magnet? ›

There are three types of magnets, and they are as follows:
  • Permanent magnet.
  • Temporary magnet.
  • Electromagnets.

What is a permanent magnet class 6? ›

Permanent magnets are those magnets that retain their magnetism for a long period of time. Temporary magnets are those magnets that lose their magnetism as soon as the cause producing their magnetism is removed. Materials like iron, nickel, and cobalt are used for making permanent magnets.

What are the 3 main types of magnets? ›

There are three types of magnets: permanent magnets, temporary magnets, and electromagnets.

What is the difference between permanent and temporary? ›

A permanent position is one where there is no defined employment end date and the employee receives a benefits package. A temporary position is one that has a defined duration of employment with a contract end date.

What is the main difference between permanent and induced magnetism? ›

A permanent magnet produces its own magnetic field. An induced magnet is a material that becomes a magnet when it is placed in a magnetic field. Induced magnetism always causes a force of attraction. When removed from the magnetic field an induced magnet loses most/all of its magnetism quickly.

Is an electromagnets temporary or permanent magnet Why Class 7? ›

An electromagnet is called a temporary magnet because it produces magnetic field so long as current flows in its coil.

Why is iron not a permanent magnet? ›

Hint:Pure iron is not used for making pure magnets because it loses its magnetism very easily. Iron cannot retain the electro magnetism because the electric flow will stop in the coil, wound and any soft iron.

Is steel a permanent magnet? ›

Those that retain much of the magnetization are called permanent magnets. One such material is steel.

How are electromagnets different from permanent magnets Quizizz? ›

An electromagnet differs from a permanent magnet because

permanent magnets require an electrical current to produce a field. electromagnets can be turned off or weakened by reducing to stopping the flow of current.

How are electromagnets different from permanent magnets quizlet? ›

An electromagnet is a magnet that runs on electricity. Unlike a permanent magnet, the strength of an electromagnet can easily be changed by changing the amount of electric current that flows through it. ...

What is permanent magnet and its properties? ›

A good permanent magnet must have a large spontaneous magnetization in zero field (i.e., a high retentivity) and a high coercive force to prevent its being easily demagnetized by an external field. Both of these imply a “fat,” almost rectangular hysteresis loop, typical of a hard magnetic…

Does permanent magnet use AC or DC? ›

As the name implies, an EV permanent magnet motor uses permanent magnetics on the rotor (see the graphic below). The alternating current applied to the stator results in rotation of the rotor. Because the magnets are permanently magnetized, the rotor runs synchronously to the switching AC current.

Is a permanent magnet AC or DC? ›

A permanent magnet (PM) motor is an ac motor that uses magnets imbedded into or attached to the surface of the motor's rotor.

Do permanent magnets last forever? ›

So how long should my permanent magnet last? Your permanent magnet should lose no more than 1% of its magnetic strength over a period of 100 years provided it is specified and cared for properly.

What is one example of an electromagnet? ›

Examples of electromagnetic devices include doorbells and any devices that have electric motors, such as electric fans. The electromagnet in a doorbell attracts the clapper, which hits the bell and makes it ring. An electric motor is a device that uses an electromagnet to change electrical energy to kinetic energy.

What is an electromagnet give one example? ›

A magnet that consists of a piece of iron or steel surrounded by a coil is known as an electromagnet. The metal becomes magnetic when an electric current is passed through the coil.

What is permanent magnet in simple words? ›

: a magnet that retains its magnetism after removal of the magnetizing force.

What are the 4 properties of electromagnets? ›

The main properties of an Electromagnet
  • An electromagnet is temporary in nature.
  • An electromagnet is made of a soft iron core.
  • The magnetic field strength can be changed.
  • An electromagnet can be easily demagnetized by switching off the current.
  • The polarity can be reversed.

What are the two types of electromagnets? ›

Answer: There are three types of electromagnets, resistant, superconductors and hybrids.

What are 3 uses of electromagnets? ›

10 Uses of Electromagnets
  • Generators, motors, and transformers.
  • Electric buzzers and bells.
  • Headphones and loudspeakers.
  • Relays and valves.
  • Data storage devices like VCRs, tape recorders, hard discs, etc.
  • Induction cooker.
  • Magnetic locks.
  • MRI machines.

What is called electromagnet? ›

electromagnet, device consisting of a core of magnetic material surrounded by a coil through which an electric current is passed to magnetize the core. An electromagnet is used wherever controllable magnets are required, as in contrivances in which the magnetic flux is to be varied, reversed, or switched on and off.

What are permanent magnet and electromagnet Give two uses? ›

Permanent magnets are used in electric generators, speakers, refrigerator door etc. <br> Materials behaving as magnetn only when a current is passed through a coil would around the material are called electromagnet . Electromagnets are used in electric bell , transformer , electric carnes etc.

What are the 3 parts of an electromagnet? ›

There are three main parts required to build an electromagnet: the iron core, copper wire, and an electricity source. Changes in each of these pieces of the electromagnet will influence the overall strength of the magnet.

What is the principle of electromagnet? ›

It works on the principle of the magnetic effect of electric current. It consists of a long coil of insulated copper wire wrapped around a soft iron core that is magnetized only when an electric current passed through the coil.

Why electromagnet is formed? ›

Electromagnets are made of coils of wire with electricity passing through them. Moving charges create magnetic fields, so when the coils of wire in an electromagnet have an electric current passing through them, the coils behave like a magnet.


1. Difference between Bar Magnet and Electromagnet
2. Electromagnet vs Permanent Magnet
(Study Centre Devrishi Bhardwaj)
3. Difference Between Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet
(Flexible Mathematics)
4. What are the differences between Electromagnet and Electro-permanent Magnet?
(HVR Magnetics Co.,Ltd)
5. Permanent magnet and electromagnet class 12 | Parmanent magnet and electromagnet
6. New King of Magnetic Power? | Electromagnet vs. Neodymium Magnet
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Laurine Ryan

Last Updated: 04/06/2023

Views: 6070

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (77 voted)

Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Laurine Ryan

Birthday: 1994-12-23

Address: Suite 751 871 Lissette Throughway, West Kittie, NH 41603

Phone: +2366831109631

Job: Sales Producer

Hobby: Creative writing, Motor sports, Do it yourself, Skateboarding, Coffee roasting, Calligraphy, Stand-up comedy

Introduction: My name is Laurine Ryan, I am a adorable, fair, graceful, spotless, gorgeous, homely, cooperative person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.